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Whether you’ve got an irrigation system already or want to get a new irrigation system installed in metro Atlanta, this page is for you.

At Millenium Irrigation, we believe an informed consumer makes the very best customer. And to that end, we want you to know more about how an irrigation system works and it’s components.

Other than pipe, there are four primary components of an efficient irrigation system. They all work together to supplement rainfall and provide your landscape with the necessary water.


There are several types of sprinkler heads but we are going to concentrate on the two most common types.


First, there are Rotors. They are called this for the obvious reason. They are the sprinkler heads that pop up and actually rotate up to 360 degrees. The placement of these heads is a crucial element of designing your irrigation system to ensure proper coverage and efficiency. Rotors are typically used to cover larger turf areas.

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There are also what are commonly called Sprayers (some people refer to these as “pop-ups,” although most sprinkler heads are flush to the ground and pop up). Sprayers are stationary and the actual head does not move. This type of sprinkler head is typically used in smaller areas and bedding. While Sprayer heads don’t move, with the addition of an MP Rotator nozzle, you can have a highly efficient sprinkler head and the nozzle itself moves.

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There are many types of sprinkler head nozzles available in addition to the MP Rotators. From the angle the water sprays, to the distance the water sprays to the efficiency with which is sprays – nozzles are as important as the sprinkler head itself in assuring a water efficient irrigation system.


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The Controller (sometimes referred to as “Clock”) is the brains of your irrigation system. It is the part that controls when your irrigation system operates including the days of the week and time. By itself it is likely the most expensive part of your irrigation system. It sends a signal via low voltage wiring to the Valves (covered next) to signal operation. It also has components that work in conjunction with it to increase water efficiency such as an inexpensive rain sensor, soil sensors or advanced weather based sensors (more on this later). Controllers can be located inside or outside depending on the availability of power and and where it is most convenient for you, our Customer. There is also another type of clock that runs off a battery only and are typically placed in ground with the Valve(s). This type of Controller is limited in it’s functionality and not often used for most situations.



If a Controller is the brains of an irrigation system, the Valves are the heart. The Valves of an irrigation system act like the Valves of your heart by opening and closing to allow water through to specific areas of pipe known commonly as “zones.” When a valve fails or stops working, you can experience symptoms of it’s failure such as a zone that won’t cut off (Valve isn’t closing) or a zone that doesn’t work (Valve won’t open). Valves should never be placed directly into the ground but housed in the groud surrounded by a Valve box and lid.



Sensors is theĀ general name for everything from a simple, inexpensive irrigation Rain Sensor to prevent your irrigation system from running during rainfall (or after saturation by rainfall) to a highly advanced, weather based system. There are sensors that use historical data or current weather data, as well as other factors such as shade and the slope of the landscape, to determine the proper watering for your landscape. These types of Sensors are what we typically call ET Based Sensors. ET, in it’s simplest terms, is how much water can be absorbed by the landscape as well as what evaporates. ET Sensors are the most efficient method to provide your landscape with it’s watering needs when installed and programmed properly by your Irrigation Contractor. While ET based Sensors are more expensive than the typical, state required Rain Sensor, they are surprisingly inexpensive, particularly when you take into account the water savings they provide.

The design of an irrigation system is crucial to it’s longevity and efficiency. The lay of the pipe, the placement and types of sprinkler heads, as well as the type of Controller and Sensor chosen can be the difference between a healthy, lush landscape with minimal water waste and a overly, wet, unhealthy water wasting irrigation system.

You can depend on us to make the best recommendation based on your needs and questions. We pride ourselves on staying on the forefront of water efficient products and product knowledge.


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